life, and the free air-flushing of the village site, and the rapid
desiccation of the objectionable matters thrown upon it, go
far to reduce the consequences of habitual neglect of sanitary
These matters will now be dealt with in detail. As regards
conservancy, it is found that the cities and larger towns are
provided with suitable latrines, which are in charge of an ade-
quate conservancy staff, and which are largely used by the
people. The excreta from these latrines, and also the general
refuse and rubbish of the town, are regularly removed to a
distance, and there buried, burnt, or otherwise suitably dis-
posed of. Although differences exist in various localities as
regards the efficiency of these arrangements, they may be
described as upon the whole fairly good. But no large centre
of population is free from many nuisances. Ruined huts and
waste pieces of land are frequently used for purposes of nature,
cesspools exist in many courtyards and in immediate proximity
to wells, excavations full of fetid water are frequently observed,
and other sources of danger to the public health are only too
In the smaller towns and villages little or no attempt at
organising conservancy arrangements is made. The villager
deposits the refuse and sweepings of the dwelling in the imme-
diate vicinity of the house or hut, in some cases from in-
difference, in others to avoid theft of such matters before their
employment for agricultural operations. For purposes of nature
he generally resorts to a field in the neighbourhood, or to the
banks of a stream or pond. Refuse water is allowed usually
to flow from his hut into the adjacent road. It should be no-
ted, however, that despite the frequently objectionable nature
of its surroundings, the interior of the average village dwelling
is usually fairly clean.
Most cities and towns have a more or less satisfactory
system of drainage as regards the main thoroughfares, but the
climatic conditions of the country, and the fact that so many