ments are possible unless by raising the price of
drugs. There are only two possible courses to adopt:
(i) absolute prohibition, (ii) the present system,
which represses consumption as far as practicable
by high duties. No. (i) I consider absolutely im-
possible. Such a prohibition would not carry
along with it the sympathy of the people, but
on the contrary persons who broke the law would
certainly have the aid and protection of the lower
classes. When it is possible in England to make
the excessive use of alcohol a criminal offence, it
may be possible to forbid the use of drugs in this
country. It would be a real mistake to take any
action in this direction. If thought desirable, the
existing duties may be enhanced on ganja and

62.  It is absolutely impossible in my opinion
to control the production of bhang.

63.  No objections. The present duties might
be raised, but the system is unexceptionable.

64.  No objections.

69.  I do not think there is any need for con-
sulting local public opinion, nor do I know if it is
done anywhere. I always consult local public
opinion as far as possible before opening a liquor
shop, for objections to this are often rife, but I
never come across such objections to a drug shop.
Drugs are used openly and with popular approval
by the holiest of devotees and temple attendants,
and their use stands on a wholly different footing
from that of alcohol.

The use of drugs does not lead to scenes of riot
and disorder as does liquor, and hence the people
make no objection to a drug shop while they
oppose a liquor shop which disturbs the village.

                            Oral evidence.

Question 1.—I have served fourteen years in
India and in many districts. I was four years in
Bijnor and have been two-and-half in the Dun.
My experience is chiefly in the Dun. I have
done the excise work myself in the Dun.

Question 3.—In the Dun jungles the wild hemp
grows in great profusion. I have recently visited
the Eastern Dun and passed through fields of wild
bhang enough to supply bhang to several dis-
tricts. The wild bhang grows in the Government
closed forests.

Question 7—The plant is not, as far as I know,
cultivated in the Dun at all.

Question 14.—I have heard that a fakir used to
get some charas from the wild plant by rubbing it
in his hands, but I have not heard of ganja being
got from the wild plant, nor is charas made as a

Question 35.—I am of opinion that restriction
of the drugs is impossible both on account of the
impossibility of stopping production and illicit
consumption, and on account of the discontent
that would be caused. I think the stoppage of
charas would be very unpopular. Ganja is not
known in the Dun. Charas is consumed almost
universally. The Gurkhas use charas. It is not
unlikely that they smuggle some of it though
shops are available. I have not consulted the
officers of Gurkha Regiments. There is a large
colony of Gurkhas, pensioners and others, settled
in the Dun. The other drug that would be con-
sumed if charas was prohibited would be opium;
but my answer was not perhaps very carefully
framed. I know nothing of dhatura. I don't
know if it is used in the Dun. I don't think
drug-consumers would take to liquor if the drugs
were stopped. There are some people, such as
sweepers, who take both alcohol and liquor. It is
possible that the consumption of alcohol would
increase if the drugs were restricted. I should
oppose restriction of the hemp drugs on the ground,
among others, that the evil effects are not ap-

Question 36.—It is among the lower orders
that alcohol-drinkers have taken to drugs. There
has been increase of drug-consumption in the Dun
in recent years. There has been extraordinary
consumption of both liquor and drags during the
past year, due to heavy rain, good season, fall of
price of liquor. I have not noticed that drug-
consumers of the better classes are taking to liquor

Question 42.—I think the habitual moderate
consumers are apt to get dull and stupid. £
should think the class of occasional consumers was
very large, probably larger than the habitual
moderate or habitual excessive class. I cannot
mention any instance of an habitual charas-con-
sumer having suffered in intellect. I cannot
remember having heard of any one having become
actually insane from the drugs.

Question 45.—I remember sending lunatics to
the asylum where madness was alleged to be
caused by ganja. This was before I came to the
Dun. I have never had to do with a lunatic
whose condition was due to charas as far as I

Question 51.—In course of my magisterial
duties I have not heard a single prisoner described
as a charas-smoker. There would be no reason for
so describing him. I have had no cases in which
criminals have been shewn to have taken drugs to
prepare for the commission of crime, or in which
crimes have been committed under drug intoxica-

Question 58.—I think that looking to the
narcotic properties of charas, the price might be
raised. The drug is a far cheaper intoxicant than
liquor. The price of charas would have to be
raised enormously to bring the drug on a level
with liquor. If Punjab charas was subjected to
duty, I don't think the people would make greater
effort to get charas from the wild plant. Very
little can be got, and that with great labour. I
am aware that a little charas is prepared in the
Himalayas. I can give no idea of the amount of
charas that can be extracted from the wild plant.

11. Evidence of MR. J. A. BROUN, Officiating Magistrate and Collector, Etawah.

1.  Fourteen years' experience as Assistant
Collector and Collector in the North-Western

2.   Yes; as above.

3. Districts under the Himalayas adjoining the
Terai, Basti Gorakpur, also Hill Districts Naini
Tal, etc.

6. Dense, where I have seen it.

vol. v.                                                        F 2