84.  With regard to the method of dealing with the disease by the serum
alone method, I am well aware that it is not an ideal or very effective one; but
in the presence of infection or suspected infection, when cure of the animal is
sought, it is useful. It may also be used at the commencement of an epizooty
with benefit, as it undoubtedly does confer a certain amount of passive im-
munity to the disease. We are in possession of serum which is capable of
giving a passive immunity to the disease and this has been more or less freely
used in various reputed outbreaks. Knowing as we do that the immunity is
passive and lasts a comparatively short time, whilst the causal agent of Anthrax
remains living in the form of spores in infected zones for a very long time and
that no rigorous hygienic measures can be adopted in this country, it does not
seem likely that much good would result from the use of the serum in the field,
because the animals if kept under the same conditions would take the disease
again if exposed to the infection a short time afterwards. My opinion, therefore,
is that attempts to deal with outbreaks of reputed but undiagnosed Anthrax
should be stopped and steps be taken to obtain more accurate information.
In outbreaks where the diagnosis is confirmed we may use serum at first and
later the simultaneous method, when we have men sufficiently highly trained to
apply it safely.

85.  I do not advocate the use of any known vaccine by the present sub-
ordinate staff as I am of opinion that it would be likely to do far more harm than
good. We cannot, at the present stage, afford to make use of any method which
is liable to be followed by inoculation mortality as the people are only yet
being educated in the use of prophylactics and deaths from inoculation would
most undoubtedly shake their confidence and hinder the expansion of Rinderpest
inoculation. This is a point of very great importance in this country. We
must be very sure of our ground and firmly established before we can venture
on the use of methods which do undoubtedly give greater and more lasting im-
munity than serum alone does, but which may be followed by inoculation mor-
tality. In new localities such deaths in previously apparently healthy cattle
would probably put a stop to inoculation for any disease. In order to be pre-
pared with a known reliable method of conferring more lasting immunity
which will be available for use in outbreaks where skilled assistance can be
obtained and the necessity is proved, we are examining various methods and are
so far in favour of the simultaneous method.

86.  Recent observations which have been communicated by Professor
Dr. Sobernheim on the combined inoculation against Anthrax of serum and
culture by the simultaneous method which has been carried out on great
number of animals during 1904-05 in the Argentine Republic and Uruguay,
furnish a proof of the great value of anti-anthrax inoculation when it can be
properly applied. They further confirm the favourable results which have
previously been communicated and show that the method is an effective obstacle
to infection in a region where contagion is severe and persistent. In 500,000
animals inoculated not a single death due to inoculation is recorded in South
America and the statistics show that it led to total suppression or a considerable
reduction of the number of cases of the disease. This result is particularly good
in a country where, as in India, hygienic measures are applied with difficulty and
where other epidemics are prevalent. Whilst Pasteur's methods have not been
followed by favourable results, the simultaneous method has frequently met
with success. This is in accord with the view of Marai who does not consider
Pasteur's inoculation to be certain in its action, and who considers that
the defective method of culture of attenuated virus in Paris is responsible for
this. The advantage this method possesses over all other inoculations with
culture products is that the protection it gives lasts over a year, and it may be
carried out at once and immunity be obtained in 12 days. This is the method
employed in Germany and in other parts of Europe and according to the obser-
vations published up to date, both the preventive and curative inoculations.